Saturday, May 23, 2020
The sword of Damocles is a modern expression, which to us means a sense of impending doom, the feeling that there is some catastrophic threat looming over you.Ã Thats not exactly its original meaning, however. The expression comes to us from the writings of the Roman politician, orator, and philosopher Cicero (106-43 BC). Ciceros point was that death looms over each of us, and we ought to try to be happy in spite of that. Others have interpreted his meaning to be similar to dont judge people until youve walked in their shoes. Others, such as Verbaal (2006) argue that the story was part of a subtle suggestion to Julius CaesarÃ that he needed to avoid the pitfalls of tyranny: the denial of spiritual life and the lack of friends. The Story of Damocles The way Cicero tells it, Damocles was the name of a sycophant (adsentator in Latin), one of the several yes-men in the court of Dionysius, a 4th century BC tyrant. Dionysius ruled Syracuse, a city in Magna Graecia, the Greek area of southern Italy. To his subjects, Dionysius appeared to be very rich and comfortable, with all the luxuries money could buy, tasteful clothing and jewelry, and access to delectable food in lavish feasts. Damocles was prone to compliment the king on his army, his resources, the majesty of his rule, the abundance of his storehouses, and the greatness of his royal palace: surely, said Damocles to the king, there had never been a happier man. Dionysius turned to him and asked Damocles if he would like to try living Dionysiuss life. Damocles readily agreed. A Tasty Repast: Not So Much Dionysius had Damocles seated on a golden couch, in a room decorated with beautiful woven tapestries embroidered with magnificent designs and furnished with sideboards chased in gold and silver. He arranged for a feast for him, to be served by waiters hand-picked for their beauty. There were all kinds of exquisite food and ointments, and even incense was burned. Then Dionysius had a glittering sword hung from the ceiling by a single horsehair, directly over Damocles head. Damocles lost his appetite for the rich life and begged Dionysius to let him go back to his poor life, for, he said, he no longer wanted to be happy. Dionysius Who? According to Cicero, for 38 years Dionysius was the ruler of the city of Syracuse, about 300 years before Cicero told the tale. Dionysius name is reminiscent of Dionysus, the Greek God of wine and drunken revelry, and he (or perhaps his son Dionysius the Younger) lived up to the name. There are several stories in the Greek historian Plutarchs writings about the two tyrants of Syracuse, father, and son, but Cicero didnt differentiate. Together the Dionysius family were the best historical example Cicero knew of cruel despotism: a combination of cruelty and refined education.Ã¢â¬â¹ The Elder invited two young men to dinner who were known to abuse the king when drunk. He noticed that one became more talkative as he drank while the other kept his wits about him. Dionysius let the talker goÃ¢â¬âhis treason was only wine-deepÃ¢â¬âbut had the latter put to death as a true traitor. (in Plutarch sÃ Apophthegms of Kings and Great Commanders)The Younger is often portrayed as spending much of his life in drunken revelry and for having a superb collection of wine cups. Plutarch reports that he was known to have led a licentious life in Syracuse with lots of drinking parties, and when he was exiled to Corinth, he frequented the taverns there and earned his living by teaching girls how to be useful at drinking parties. He blamed his misspent ways on being the son of a tyrant. (in Plutarchs, Life of Timoleon) McKinlay (1939) argued that Cicero could have meant either one: the elder who used the Damocles story as a lesson in virtue directed (in part) to his son, or the younger who staged a party for Damocles as a joke. A Bit of Context: The Tusuclan Disputations The sword of Damocles is from Book V of Ciceros Tusuclan Disputations, a set of rhetorical exercises on philosophical topics and one of the several works of moral philosophy that Cicero wrote in the years 44-45 BC after he had been forced out of the Senate. The five volumes of the Tusuclan Disputations are each devoted to the things that Cicero argued were essential to a happy life: indifference to death, enduring pain, alleviating sorrow, resisting other spiritual disturbances, and choosing virtue. The books were part of a vibrant period of Ciceros intellectual life, written six months after the death of his daughter Tullia, and, say, modern philosophers, they were how he found his own path to happiness: the blissful life of a sage. Book V: A Virtuous Life The Sword of Damocles story appears in the fifth book, which argues that virtue is sufficient for living a happy life, and in Book V Cicero describes in detail what an utterly miserable man Dionysius was. He was said to have been temperate in his mode of living, alert, and diligent in business, but naturally malicious and unjust to his subjects and family. Born of good parents and with a wonderful education and huge family, he trusted none of them, certain that they would blame him for his unrighteous lust for power. Ultimately, Cicero compares Dionysius to Plato and Archimedes, who spent happy lives in the pursuit of intellectual inquiry. In Book V, Cicero says he found the long lost tomb of Archimedes, and it inspired him. Fear of death and retribution is what made Dionysius wretched, says Cicero: Archimedes was happy because he led a good life and was unworried about death which (after all) looms over all of us. Sources: Cicero MT, and Younge CD (translator). 46 BC (1877). Ciceros Tusculan Disputations. Project Gutenberg Jaeger M. 2002. Cicero and Archimedes Tomb. The Journal of Roman Studies 92:49-61. Mader G. 2002. Thyestes Slipping Garland (Seneca, Thy. 947). Acta Classica 45:129-132. McKinlay AP. 1939. The Indulgent Dionysius. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 70:51-61. Verbaal W. 2006. Cicero and Dionysios the Elder, or the End of Liberty. The Classical World 99(2):145-156.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
The meeting discussed the brutal attacks on the Saudi embassy in Tehran where Al-Jubeir noted that the attacks were clear violations of the international conventions, laws, and treaties. According to the sanctity of these international agreements, the Iranian government has a responsibility to protect the diplomatic missions on their soil. Further, he confirmed that the attacks on Saudi diplomats were highly condemned by other countries, as well as regional and international organizations such as UN Security Council, the Arab League, and Gulf Cooperation Council. He asserted that OIC needed to issue a strict stance to Iran from its principles and other international conventions and laws. Additionally, he concluded that Saudi Arabia was more concerned with better relations, mutual respect, non- interference and good principles of neighborliness with Iran but the latter failed to adhere to these basic rules. As noted before, the Iranian aggressive policies date back to the 1979 revolution, after which the country has continued to instigate cases of sedition, unrest, and chaos among the countries in the Gulf region. This is thought to have been a long-term effort by Iran to undermine security and spread instability in the region completely disregarding the moral principles, international conventions, and treaties. However, despite the numerous consequences caused by continued Iranian interference, Saudi has maintained a policy of restraint to prevent any major outburst. TheShow MoreRelatedThe Roots of the Terrorist Attacks of 9/111175 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe 9/11 terrorist attacks are rooted deeper than most Americans realize. The trail of historical events that led to this catastrophe are widely unknown. Many Americans believe that the war on terror began with the tragedy of the attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and ended with the death of Osama Bin Laden, but in real ity, the war on terror has a long and complicated history. This paper will explore the historical events that culminated in the terrorist attack on September 11, 2001Read MoreTerrorism : The Threat Of Terrorism Essay701 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesalso has different motives. The most common motives for terrorist attacks in the United States are different political and religious views. The United States is also a targeted country because they are very involved in other nations. As the terrorist threat continues to rise, the United States must have tactics to prevent attacks and the deaths of thousands of innocent people. Al Qaeda was responsible for the biggest terrorist attack that occurred in the U.S. on September 11th, 2001. Al Qaeda wasRead MoreThe Following Reading Will Contain Background Information923 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJuly 7th, 2005 attacks on the London Transit System. It will include the background of the Al-Qaeda organization that influenced the attack, as well as the history of the major attacks the organization has committed in its short twenty-nine year history. It will also mention how the region help influence the organization and then subsequently influence cells to commit attacks. Ã¢â¬Æ' Introduction The attacks on the London Transit system on July 7th, 2005 were the worst terrorist attacks the United KingdomRead MoreAl Qaeda Terrorist Group1239 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswas established around 1990 by a Saudi millionaire, Osama Bin Laden, to bring together Arabs who fought in Afghanistan against the Soviet invasion. The goal of the organization is to reestablish the Muslim state throughout the world. Al Qaeda works with allied Islamic extremist groups to overthrow regimes it deems non-Islamic and remove Westerners from Muslin countries. Groups affiliated with Al Qaeda have conducted numerous bombings and other violent attacks throughout the world that have resultedRead MoreYemen : The Original Land Of Birth Of Osama Bin Laden751 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesYemen is the original land of birth of Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden s family were emigrating from Wadi Dawan, a valley in the Hadramaut, to Saudi Arabia in the early nineteenth century. Al Ã¢â¬âQaeda strengthen in Yemen for many rea sons, first, it incubator environment represented by the tribes, besides a number of its members involved in the Afghan war. Therefore, it became base under protection of some religious fanatics in Yemen. In 1998, Al Ã¢â¬âQaeda killed, four out of six of the ten hostagesRead MoreEssay on Attacks on the US Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania913 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1998, two U.S. embassies were attacked almost simultaneously. One was in Nairobi, Kenya and the other in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The attack in Kenya involved both a truck bomb and at least two suicide bombers. The truck was at the back entrance of the embassy when the bomb went off, and the damage was critical. This attack had more casualties than the bombing in Tanzania because the truck that contained the bomb was able to get into the inner embassy compound. Also, the Nairobi embassy was close toRead MoreTerrorism : The Threat Of Terrorism Essay1098 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesterrorist attack in the future. September 11, 2001 is known today as the darkest day in aviation history because the attacks resulted in extensive death and destruction which led to significant U.S. initiates to combat terrorism globally. The Islamic extremist group Al-Qaeda are terrorists from Saudi Arabia and several other Arab nations who are responsible for such a horrific day in history. To better understand what led to 9/11, we must first analyze the history of Al-QaedaÃ¢â¬â¢s past attacks. The significanceRead MoreArticle: Terror Attacks against the United States1555 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Terror Attacks against the United States Date Submitted 1998 United States Embassy Bombings in East Africa: The bombings on the United States embassies in East Africa were several attacks that happened on August 7, 1998 in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. These attacks occurred simultaneously and involved truck bomb explosions at the American embassies in these countries resulting in the death of hundreds of people and destruction of property. Moreover, these attacks happened onRead MoreTerrorism Between Saudi Arabia And Iran1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOn January 2nd, 2016, Saudi Arabia executed 47 people on terrorism charges, including prominent Shiite Saudi cleric Nimr al-Nimr . Protestors in predominantly Shiite Iran promptly set fire to the Saudi embassy in Tehran, while the Iranian foreign minister denounced Saudi ArabiaÃ¢â¬â¢s actions. Saudi Arabia then severed all diplomatic ties with Iran, and many of their Sunni monarchist allies have done the same. Over the past week and a half, the Gulf has rapidly become a battleground, with countries beingRead MoreEssay on Muslim Terrorism in the United States1716 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesspurt in the building of mosques with the support of the Muslim Brotherhood and funding by Saudi Arabia (Vidino, 2009). The funding of Saudi Arabia focused on propaganda which in turn influenced the conversion of black separatists or black particularism activists such as Malcolm X, to an adoption of traditional Sunni Islam found in Saudi Arabia (Emerson, 2002). Vidino (2009) stated this influence of Saudi Arabia initiated thousands of Americans to travel to Mecca which propelled a significant growth
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
We were on each other before we even made it to his room. If our actions on the dance floor had been racy, our grappling in the elevator was downright X-rated. Fortunately no one else rode up with us, which was a good thing, considering the disheveled state of our clothing when we finally made it inside. We will write a custom essay sample on Storm Born Chapter Four or any similar topic only for you Order Now All the while, some reasonable voice in my mind kept whispering, You donÃ¢â¬â¢t do this kind of thing. But I was. And I wanted to, very badly. It was a nice room, not surprising in such a nice hotel. A king-size bed offered comfort in the moonlit room, and beyond it, a sliding glass door opened out to a balcony that overlooked the desert. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have time to admire the view because Kiyo pushed me down onto the bed, pulling my shirt off at the same time. IÃ¢â¬â¢d already done a fair job at undoing his pants in the elevator, so I had an edge in the race. When we were both naked, I saw him sit up and lean over the side of the bed, fumbling with the grocery store bag on the floor. WeÃ¢â¬â¢d had to make an unromantic Ã¢â¬â but necessary Ã¢â¬â stop for condoms. I was on the pill, but even in the heat of passion, I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t so foolish as to trust going into unprotected sex with a stranger, no matter how charming. KiyoÃ¢â¬â¢s eager hands practically tore the box apart, causing the little packets to scatter on the floor. He picked one up and opened it, and I helped him put it on. I smiled both at his reaction to my touch and the fact that the condom was a deep scarlet. When it was on, I admired him for a moment. Everything about him was perfect: the shape of his body, the sculpted muscles, the tanned skin. His eyes were dark and demanding in the dim lighting, black depths that wanted to wrap me up. There was an intense quality to him, something primal and feral. He regarded me in a similarly scrutinizing way just before pulling me down onto the bed with him, laying his body across mine. All he did was kiss me at first. Everywhere. He tasted my lips again and then my neck, tracing its shape with his tongue. My breasts held his attention for a long time after that, but then, breasts occupied most guysÃ¢â¬â¢ attention as a general rule. He held them and kissed them, biting the nipples, keeping his eyes locked on mine the entire time. For me, it was like traces of fire shooting under my skin, like his touch was some kind of drug my body needed to survive. When his face moved between my legs, it was only to nuzzle against the sensitive skin down there, to run his tongue along the place where my thigh connected with the rest of my body. He inhaled deeply, burying himself against me as though he needed to take more of me in. He moved back up so that we were face to face once more, his body again on top of mine. My own body was in agony, uncertain as to why we werenÃ¢â¬â¢t expediting things. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what look was on my face, but he smiled at me. It was a knowing smile, an animal smile. Ã¢â¬Å"There is nothing in the world,Ã¢â¬ he said in a soft, burning voice, Ã¢â¬Å"like the smell and look of a woman about to let you have her.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËHave?'Ã¢â¬ I laughed. Ã¢â¬Å"Are you calling me a possession?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"WeÃ¢â¬â¢re all possessions during sex, Eugenie.Ã¢â¬ And then I felt him slide into me, slowly at first as though he would inch his way in and catch me unaware, and then plunging all the way. I thought the earlier delay around the tour of my body might have made him less hard, but if anything, he felt harder and bigger than when IÃ¢â¬â¢d put the condom on. He moved at a rough, fast pace that in any other man would probably have ended things in thirty seconds. Somehow I suspected that wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be the case here. It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t. I dug my nails into his back, arching myself up as though I could drive him farther and farther into me. Already I was almost painfully full, but it was a good pain, the kind that danced with pleasure, making the two inextricable. He moved with long, rapid strokes, watching my face carefully to see how I reacted to every movement and shift of position. When he hit a spot that made my lips part and cries grow louder, he thrust harder and more fiercely. My cries bordered along the edge of screaming, and he moved his hands to hold my wrists and keep my bucking body from moving. The wrist that had been hurt with the keres complained a little, but it was lost to the building sensation between my legs, that burning liquid heat waiting to explode through me. Besides, I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t being gentle either. I slipped my hands from his hold and clutched at his back, letting my nails dig in fierce and deep, almost hard enough to draw blood, I realized. That knowledge didnÃ¢â¬â¢t make me stop. I f anything, I dug deeper until he snatched my wrists back and held me down again. It was the roughest sex IÃ¢â¬â¢d ever had. And probably the best. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t close your eyes,Ã¢â¬ he told me. I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t even realized IÃ¢â¬â¢d been doing it. Vision seemed a superfluous sense at the moment, compared to everything else I felt. Ã¢â¬Å"Look at me,Ã¢â¬ he whispered. Ã¢â¬Å"Look at me.Ã¢â¬ Our eyes locked as the pressure within me finally exploded, sending my body thrashing and shaking. My screams faded to one low moan, the only way I could give voice to the feelings coursing through me. One might have thought Kiyo would slow down after that, but he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t. He kept up the same ardent pace, still holding me, and it was almost too much after that orgasm. I could see from his face that my reactions aroused him, drove him on further. I was his possession in that moment, just as he had said. My combative, fighter nature flared up just then. I decided that I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be the possession anymore. Dominance and power ruled my days; it would with sex too. I moved my hands from his back to his upper arms and shoulders. Relying on the element of surprise, I rolled him over, using my legs to pin him down, wrapping them around his hips. Pleased surprise poured over his face. He hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t expected me to be so strong. He shifted as though he might try to throw me, and I shoved him down. It turned into a rougher motion than I intended, but he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t mind. If anything, it made the passion on his face grow. Ã¢â¬Å"You submit now,Ã¢â¬ I growled, pressing my palms down onto his chest. A smile twisted at his lips. Ã¢â¬Å"Sure.Ã¢â¬ I guided him back into me, exultant that I was the one in control now. I moved my hips up and down, leaning over so I could watch him slide in and out of me. My hair, long since freed from its ponytail, hung over him, grazing his skin. I have hair the color of cinnamon, a tawny russet not dark enough to be auburn, nor light enough to be strawberry. In this lighting, however, it was only a dark veil between us. He brushed it aside and rested his hands gently under my breasts so he could feel their movement as I rode him. Looking up through my hair, I watched his face now that I was the one controlling him. It was exquisite. I moved faster and harder, bringing him all the way into me, watching and adjusting as I did. I wanted to see him come so badly, see the look on his face when he lost control. I knew we were close when his hands dropped from my breasts to grip my waist and hips. His fingers clenched tightly into my skin, just as mine had earlier. He kept his gaze on me, bold and unafraid of me seeing him in climax. I moved more fiercely, urging him on, and then I heard a soft, ecstatic sound issue forth. His eyes never left mine, and his hands slid to the backs my shoulders, suddenly raking down my flesh as his body released itself into mine. I yelled out in surprise at the pain from where heÃ¢â¬â¢d scratched me. How sharp were his nails? Did he have talons? IÃ¢â¬â¢d dug into him too but nothing like what heÃ¢â¬â¢d just accomplished on me. When heÃ¢â¬â¢d recovered, and his frantic gasps had returned to normal, he seemed to realize what heÃ¢â¬â¢d done. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh my God, IÃ¢â¬â¢m sorry,Ã¢â¬ he said, his breathing still heavy. He pulled me to him, putting his arms around me, careful to avoid the places heÃ¢â¬â¢d gouged. I laid my cheek against the warm, sweaty skin of his chest. Ã¢â¬Å"Did I hurt you?Ã¢â¬ I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know which part of sex he referred to Ã¢â¬â probably that last bit of scratching Ã¢â¬â but really, it didnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter. Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ I lied. Ã¢â¬Å"Of course not.Ã¢â¬ When weÃ¢â¬â¢d both sort of come back to ourselves, we ransacked the shopping bag again and produced the cheap wine weÃ¢â¬â¢d purchased along with the condoms. It had seemed hilarious at the time, considering our earlier conversation on courtship gifts. We sat naked and cross-legged in bed, drinking from the glasses that had already been in the room. We talked a little, and though the conversation was a bit less substantive than in the bar, it still felt comfortable. It was hard to be eloquent after the wild, animal experience weÃ¢â¬â¢d just had. I went to the bathroom at one point and peered at my back in the mirror. HeÃ¢â¬â¢d missed my tattoos but definitely drawn blood and torn skin. It was startling. I wet a washcloth and cleaned my stinging back as best I could, then pulled on one of the plush white robes hanging on the back of the door. Kiyo still sat on the bed, watching me, but I left him there and took my wine outside to the balcony. It was a gorgeous night. The cacti and other desert plants stood painted in shadows and moonlight cast from a full silver moon. Selene was out tonight, and I guessed sheÃ¢â¬â¢d come through for me just now. Crystalline stars adorned the blackness. I had a telescope at home and mused that it would have been a good night to study the heavens. Except that it looked like the weather would turn on us soon. This surprised me, considering how clear it had been most of the day. Rain was rare this time of year. But dark clouds were tumbling quickly across the sky, blotting out the stars they passed. On the horizon the clouds came from, I saw a faint flicker of lightning. A wind picked up, the kind of wind that rises and falls like oneÃ¢â¬â¢s breath. The air was warm and alive, building up tension and power. It wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be a dismal, glowering storm; it would be the kind of storm that left you awestruck about the power of life and nature. I felt alive too in that moment, as restless and wild as the tempest about to come. I felt pretty confident I had never opened myself up to anyone as much as I had to Kiyo just now. I had let myself go. It was frightening and thrilling at the same time. I heard him step out onto the balcony a few minutes later and then I felt his arms slide around my waist and his chest press against my back. He rested his chin on my shoulder. All was quiet around us. We were far from the highway, and no one else seemed to be awake. There was only the sound of the wind blowing around us and thunder growing louder. KiyoÃ¢â¬â¢s hands slipped to my waist and loosened the ties. He then reached up and tugged at the robe so that it fell off, leaving me naked to the elements. I started to turn away, shy, but he held me where I was. Ã¢â¬Å"No oneÃ¢â¬â¢s out,Ã¢â¬ he murmured, running his hands over my body, grazing my breasts as he moved farther down. Ã¢â¬Å"And even if they were, you have nothing to be ashamed of. YouÃ¢â¬â¢re beautiful, Eugenie. You are so amazingly beautiful.Ã¢â¬ He buried his face against my neck, and I leaned into him as he kissed me. His hand slid down between my legs and stroked me as the wind caressed my skin. When I whimpered out of desire, he released me for a moment, and I heard a slight rustling. HeÃ¢â¬â¢d brought a condom outside with him. Presumptuous bastard. He had it on in seconds and then returned his hands to me, positioning me so that I bent over, my hands holding on to the railing. He pressed up behind me, and then that hard thickness was inside me again, once more claiming possession. I was almost rubbed raw from our last round, but as he kept moving into me, I eventually grew wet again, allowing the line between pleasure and pain to blur once more. It seemed crazy, having sex out here in public like this, but it was the kind of crazy that felt pretty damned good. Apparently he had an exhibitionist streak. But no one was out here. It was just us and the desert and the storm. I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t thought I could come any more tonight, but he proved me wrong just as the first warm drops of rain began to fall. Thunder and lightning occurred together around us now; the storm had reached us, screaming its own ecstasy to the earth. Still Kiyo moved into me, oblivious of the weather, intent only on me and him. At last, when we were in a full downpour, I felt him shudder and give a few last hard strokes before pulling out. Then he turned me around and drew me to him again. I could hear his heart beating in his chest almost as loudly as the thunder around us. The desert flickered and flared to life in the lightning, and the pounding rain threatened to drown us. But neither of us noticed. I fell asleep pretty quickly after that, lying under the covers in his arms once weÃ¢â¬â¢d both toweled off. No insomnia tonight. Yet, I woke up a couple hours later, not entirely certain why. Then I knew. KiyoÃ¢â¬â¢s hand was pressed against my mouth, making it hard to breathe. The storm had stopped; all was silent in the dark room. I started to struggle, and then his mouth was by my ear, his voice barely audible. Ã¢â¬Å"Shh. SomethingÃ¢â¬â¢s in here.Ã¢â¬ I nodded my understanding, and a moment later, he released his hold. We both lay perfectly still, and I thought about his choice of words. Something, not someone. Literal and figurative chills suddenly crept over me. Following KiyoÃ¢â¬â¢s gaze, I looked up at the wrought-iron headboard and saw ice crystals spreading along it like fine white lace. Our breath came out in small clouds, and my bare skin shivered with the cold. A shape moved into my field of vision, shining in the returned moonlight. I had known what it was before seeing it. An ice elemental. A creature vaguely anthropomorphic and composed of sharp, glittering ice crystals. Technically, however, it was just one of the gentry. Some of them could not pass physically into our world, just as some shamans could not cross physically into theirs. Gentry not wanting to come in spirit but lacking the strength to come over with bodies intact would sometimes cross in an altered, flawed form. An elemental form. Of course, the thing was, any gentry not strong enough to come physically was not even close to being as strong as me. I could kick any elementalÃ¢â¬â¢s ass easily. Well, if I had the right tools, of course. At the moment, all I had Ã¢â¬â aside from my own physical strength Ã¢â¬â was my jewelry, which was more defensive than offensive. All of my weapons had been left at home, save my wand, which was in my purse. Unfortunately, my purse still sat over by the door where it had been dropped immediately upon entering the room, lest it hinder Kiyo and me ripping each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s clothes off. A dilemma, truly. But the ice elemental could see we were awake now, and a cold smile Ã¢â¬â seriously Ã¢â¬â crossed its face. Screw this. I was going to have to make a move for the door and hope I was faster than it. I started to tell Kiyo just to stay still, but suddenly he leapt from his lounging position and nailed the elemental squarely with a kick straight to the solar plexus. The elemental flew backward, hitting the wall, and for a moment, I could only stare. IÃ¢â¬â¢d barely seen Kiyo move. One minute he was with me, the next he was on the elemental. And was he on it! I mean, I was stronger than a lot of people, but I could not have landed that blow. I knew of few who could. It was my will or weapons that fought a creature like this in the end, not my body. How had Kiyo done that? I stared at him incredulously, then realized I was missing my window here. I sprang from the bed, slipping out of KiyoÃ¢â¬â¢s reach. Ã¢â¬Å"No, Eugenie! Stay away!Ã¢â¬ I made it to the door, but the elemental was getting up. Its eyes focused on me, and my stomach lurched, knowing I had attracted this creature here and possibly put Kiyo at risk. The elemental gave a tinny laugh as it watched me empty out the purse onto the floor. Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, Eugenie Markham, stay away. Stay away, little swan.Ã¢â¬ It took a step toward me. Frantically, I searched for the wand. Where had all this shit in my purse come from? Ã¢â¬Å"How do you know my name?Ã¢â¬ I asked, hoping to distract it. Gentry, no matter their form, loved to hear themselves talk. Ã¢â¬Å"Everyone knows your name. And everyone wants you.Ã¢â¬ IÃ¢â¬â¢d never thought a walking chunk of ice could look lascivious, but this one pulled it off. I shuddered and not from the cold. Ã¢â¬Å"But I see someone has already tasted you tonight. No matter. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t mind following in anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s wake, nor will I be the last to spread those soft legs Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å" The creature was so fixated on me and what it wanted to do to me that itÃ¢â¬â¢d forgotten about Kiyo. Kiyo had surveyed the room during the exchange, and IÃ¢â¬â¢d seen his eyes rest on a tall, wrought-iron lamp. His eyes glittered with a dark heat, almost frightening in its ferocity. With the elemental distracted, Kiyo dashed for the lamp, again moving with incredible speed, and then in one motion, swung it at the elemental, hitting it with the force of a tank. A large chunk of ice broke from the elementalÃ¢â¬â¢s body, and it roared in agony. Iron or steel will always hurt the gentry, regardless of which world they walk. I wondered if Kiyo had known that. The elemental lunged at him, and the two of them wrestled on the floor, rolling over and over as they struggled to land a hit. Kiyo fought savagely, and each time he dug his fingers into the monster, it would hiss in pain. I had my wand now and advanced toward the two of them. I thrust it out, making it an extension of my arm. With alcohol still metabolizing in my body, as well as me being physically exhausted, I knew I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t destroy the elemental, but I could sure as hell send it back to the Otherworld. The air tingled around me, and again I smelled ozone. The elemental realized what I was doing and released Kiyo, trying to stop me. Kiyo did not let his prey go so easily, however, and moved forward, his foot again connecting with the creature Ã¢â¬â this time on the back. The weakened elemental stumbled to its knees. I could usually do expulsions on my own, but tonight I needed a little divine help. Ã¢â¬Å"By HecateÃ¢â¬â¢s grace, I cast you from this world. In HecateÃ¢â¬â¢s name, I return you to your own realm.Ã¢â¬ The elemental screamed its fury, but it was already dissolving. Ã¢â¬Å"Leave here, and return no more, you fucking bastard. Go.Ã¢â¬ The elemental shattered in an explosion of ice. Some of the crystals grazed my skin, cutting it. An onlooker might have thought it had been destroyed, but I had only damaged its elemental manifestation. It had gone to the Otherworld in its own body. I could hear the blood pounding in my ears, adrenaline surging through me. Another creature had known my name. And like the keres, it had seemed terribly interested in me in aÃ¢â¬ ¦Biblical way. Bleh. But I had more pressing problems. Slowly I turned to stare at Kiyo who was watching me with equal caution, taking in my posture and the charged wand in my hand. Kiyo. Dark, sexy Kiyo, who had wooed me in the bar and just given me the best sex of my life. The same Kiyo who had just fought an elemental with more strength and speed than I ever could have mustered Ã¢â¬â more than any human could have mustered. He had also not turned into a blabbering, shocked idiot like most humans would have Ã¢â¬â should have Ã¢â¬â around an elemental. He had seen one before. He knew what it was, just as he knew what my wand and incantations were. What had earlier seemed like a passionate encounter for me suddenly had a vile edge. Fear traced my spine as we stared at each other, neither of us certain what to do. The words were on my lips, but he asked them first. Ã¢â¬Å"What are you?Ã¢â¬ How to cite Storm Born Chapter Four, Essay examples
Friday, May 1, 2020
Question: Analyse and evaluate the strategy, operations and performance of the Multinational Enterprise. Answer: Introduction KFC founded by Colonel Harland Sanders, also known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, is an American fast food chain popular for their fried chicken items. They have their headquarters in Louisville, Kentucky. It is the worlds second largest chain of restaurant after McDonalds with its presence in almost 20,000 locations globally in 123 countries (Alviola IV et al.,2014). KFC was one of the foremost American restaurants to expand internationally in Canada, Mexico and United Kingdom in the mid 1960s. The KFC chain is a subsidiary of the Yum brands, a brand that also owns pizza hut and taco bell chains (Kelly Swinburn, 2015). KFCs original product was the fried chicken piece that was seasoned by Sanders secret recipe of 11 herbs and spices. However, since the 1990s they expanded their menu to include chicken fillet burgers, wraps, salads, side dishes like French fries and soft drinks. A PESTEL analysis is a method used to analyze and monitor the external marketing environment that has its impact on an organization, which is used to identify threats and weaknesses of the firm. PESTEL stands for political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal. Political factors Political factors study how and to what extent the government intervenes into the functioning of the economy. This includes the policies of the government, the political stability or instability in the market, tax policy, foreign trade policy, environmental law, legal law and trade restrictions. India has a steady government. The labor force is expensive and the companies have to pay high taxes, which reduces the profit rate in the country. The government has given freedom to the companies to do their business there way (Samnani, 2014). KFC designs the pricing structure keeping in mind the income of the people that way KFC can cater to all the classes. The political climate of India is friendly towards international businesses, which is an advantage for KFC. The operation of KFC is affected by the government rules and policies regarding the fast food industry. Currently government is controlling the fast food restaurants because of the various health issues and obesity related proble ms attached to it. KFC maintains a good relation with the government by paying taxes properly and increasing employment opportunities for the masses and follows the legal rules and restriction. Economical factors Economic factors have important impact on how an organization work and how profitable they are. Economic factors include the rate of economic growth, interest rates, inflation, income of the consumers, exchange rates and so on. KFC is struggling in many economies like china where their sales are declining due to its health factors (Schrder McEachern, 2005). With the growing health consciousness among the people, the sale of KFC is declining in many economies. Every outlet of KFC gives employment to around 10-15 people in a way it curbs unemployment ("Home | KFC", 2018). Indias economic condition is extremely good and per capita is high. Population being low resources is abundant. Though earlier the target of KFC was the upper classes, later on they changed their target market to include the middle-income group. The economic condition of India is an advantage for the company as this increases its sales. Social factors This area involves the social and cultural beliefs of the consumers. This includes population growth, age distribution, career attitudes and so on. These factors are extremely important because this directly affects how marketers understand their consumers. In the social issues KFC luring of children to their unhealthy food, unethical treatment of animals and low wages to employees are widely criticized (Shoyemi, 2014). It is rumored that the chicken used by KFC are genetically modified to store more fat, which makes the chicken incapable to carry its own body weight. Many animal welfare organizations like PETA condemn KFC for such heinous issues. The social system in India is beneficial for the further growth of the company. The banking system is also strong and literacy rates are high. India being a capitalistic economy the income of the people are high, and the busy schedule of the people makes them resort to these fast food restaurants. KFC very tactfully adapts to the culture of the country they operate in. the busy lifestyle of the masses makes them resort to these unhealthy fast foods. The growing awareness about the harmful effects of fast food is proving to be a threat for KFC. Technological factors The technological progression of the country affects the organizations marketing and daily operations India has a very high per capita income and literacy rate. There technological development is also very advanced (Kelsey, 2015). Thus internet usages and exposure to advanced technology is high. KFC uses strategy to introduce new technology when they feel it is needed. In the technological era KFC has started mobile apps with the help of which ordering and payment online is made possible. In a developing country like India this acts as an opportunity because this increases its sales and growth. Environmental factors With the growing concern on environment, this factor has come to the forefront in the recent years. It has become extremely important due to the scarcity of raw materials. KFC buys their packaging materials from companies that contribute to deforestation (Tiwari, 2017) This particular company also uses underage children to work for them in order to pay fewer wages to them. KFCs treatment of the chickens used for the meal is said to be injected to make them obese. This harms the chicken and makes them extremely toxic for human consumption. This also poses several difficulties for the chickens that sometimes die because of the injections. The educated people condemn these various factors since they pose as a threat for the KFC chain. Legal factors This includes the health and safety factors, advertising standards, equal opportunities, consumer laws and rights, product safety and product labeling. Every company need to know what is legal and what is not in the economy they are operating. For organizations that are global this is a difficult area to act because every country has different rules and laws (Smith et al.,2014). The government in India changes after every five years, corruption level is low. International companies are invited to start their business but their profit is low because of the high taxes. The government gives enough freedom to the firms to conduct their business and does not intervene unnecessary in the daily workings. KFC has to abide by the legal rules and regulations laid down by the government of India for the smooth operations. The above analysis clearly provides an overview of the external environmental conditions faced by the company KFC. The external environmental conditions form an important part of the company and often it is seen that they are beyond the control of the company. The company however, can utilize the external environmental conditions by turning the risks or threats faced by it into future opportunities. Global Diversity Global diversity can be defined as the process by means of which one company can distinguish itself from another not only on the basis of the services provided by them but also on the basis of the strategies as well as the global plan followed by them. This is an important process by means of which the various companies can adapt themselves to the global market and it also allows them to work as per the needs and the requirements of the customers. The company Kentucky Fried Chicken uses the various aspects of global diversity to market its products in more than 198 different countries of the world ("Home | KFC", 2018). The company KFC, in India itself has more than 350 outlets, thereby making India as one the largest center of its business ("Home | KFC", 2018). America is another country where the products of the company KFC are in much demand ("Home | KFC", 2018). The company KFC, as a matter of fact has its headquarters in Kentucky, United States of America ("Home | KFC", 2018). The cultural characteristics of the country India on the basis of the Hofstedes cultural model would reveal the following facts- Figure 1: Hofstedes Cultural Insights for India Source: ("Country Comparison - Hofstede Insights", 2018) The above figure clearly indicates that the Indian people score low on the individualism quotient, which means the people like to work in groups and group culture is prevalent there ("Country Comparison - Hofstede Insights", 2018). The people of India score very high on the power distance score which means that the people appreciate the hierarchy system prevalent at their work place and they are very dependent on their bosses or the higher authorities for the performance of their job roles ("Country Comparison - Hofstede Insights", 2018). The score of India on the Hofstedes culture for the aspect of masculinity indicates that the Indian society is driven by competition, success and achievement ("Country Comparison - Hofstede Insights", 2018). The low score of the nation for the aspect of uncertainty avoidance indicates that the people have low preference for avoiding uncertainty ("Country Comparison - Hofstede Insights", 2018). The cultural characteristics of the country United States of America on the basis of Hofstedes cultural model would reveal the following facts- Figure 2: Hofstedes cultural insights for United States of America Source: ("Country Comparison - Hofstede Insights", 2018) The above figure clearly indicates that the people of the United States of America are very individualistic and like to work in an individualistic manner (Taras, Steel, Kirkman, 2012). The low score on the power distance aspect indicates that the people of the United States of America do not endorse the inequality of the division of power in the society ("Country Comparison - Hofstede Insights", 2018). The high score on the aspect of masculinity indicates that the people of the United States of America are driven by factors like success, competition and achievement ("Country Comparison - Hofstede Insights", 2018). The low score on the uncertainty avoidance indicates that the people of America are fairly tolerant towards the changes in technology, innovations and the desire to try out new things ("Country Comparison - Hofstede Insights", 2018). Therefore, from the above discussion it becomes clear that if the American company, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) is to expand its business in India then it will have to take into consideration the various aspects of the culture of the Indian nation. The company will especially have to make adjustments in the aspects of power distance, individualism, uncertainty avoidance as well as masculinity. Management of the business in India KFC opened its first outlet in India at Bangalore in the year 1995 ("Home | KFC", 2018). The company currently owns more than 350 outlets in the nation ("Home | KFC", 2018). This is a reflection of the successful collaboration of the company KFC with the franchise Yum ("Yum! Brands A World with More Yum!", 2018). It is to be noted that the company has transformed some of the traditional products offered by it in order to suit the taste as well as the needs of the Indian customers (Sania, Kalpina, Javed, 2015). It is to be noted that in the initial phase the company had to face some protest as the regards the type of raw materials used by it for the preparation of its products. Then there were others who protested to the non-vegetarian products sold by the outlets ("Home | KFC", 2018). The company KFC, therefore in order to capture the needs as well as the requirements of the customers started its new brand of products and food items with the slogan So Veg, So Good ("Home | KFC", 20 18). This plan was introduced as part of its Indian-specific promotional strategy, which was much appreciated by the Indian customers. The second important strategy adopted by the company in a bid to capture the Indian market was the introduction of the 5-in-1 meal boxes and the use of the local dabbawalas for the purposes of the delivery of the products to the office goers (Shoyemi, 2014). It is to be noted that the Indian dabbawalas are known for their efficiency as well as timely delivery services (Shoyemi, 2014). Therefore, this strategy proved to a vital one for the company as it not only enabled them to procure a reliable delivery system but also enabled them to capture the office goers customers of the nation. Another, important strategy utilized by the company is the introduction of the new system of Watt a Box, which is similar in many respects to the traditional 5-in-1 meal boxes of the company with the only difference being that in this particular respect the customers ca n order their meals over the phone (Hussain, 2014). The company even follows effective pricing policy as well as provides discount services in a bid to attract more customers to its outlets. These in short are some of the strategies, which the company has utilized over the years to capture the market of the Indian nation. The company offers a wide range of products to its Indian customers like Hot Crispy Chicken, Chicken Zinger Burger, Fiery Grilled bucket chickens, Rice Bowlz and various others ("Home | KFC", 2018). The company also provides a wide range of vegetarian products to the Indian customers. This is something which is not seen among the range of products offered by the company in its American outlets. The pricing strategy followed by the company in its Indian outlets is different from the ones which it follows in its American market. The company follows a pricing strategy in its Indian market as per the needs and the requirements of the customers and the market conditions. The company uses the social media and newspapers for the purposes of promotion of its products. The company in order to attract more customers had tie up with various other companies like Yum brands and Pepsi Co ("Home | KFC", 2018). They even offer attractive offers like combo meals and others to attract the customers. The primary supplier of raw materials for the company is Venkys, which is the largest supplier of raw chickens in India ("Home | KFC", 2018). The operational strategy followed by the company in India are listed below- The use of vegetarian menu as well as the localization of the products. Effective Supplier system Effective price strategy Focusing on the younger customers It is to be noted that the business of the company grew by 8% in the country of India in the year 2017 ("Home | KFC", 2018). The company owns more than 350 outlets in the country ("Home | KFC", 2018). The supplier system of the company in the country India is shown by the following figure- Figure 3: Supplier system Source: (Created by the Author) Targeted customer base and competitors The primary competitors of the company KFC in India are McDonalds, Subway, Dominos and various others ("Home | KFC", 2018). Initially, the target customer base of the company was just the office going population and to capture that customer the company effectively utilized the services of the dabbawalas. However, over the years, the focus of the company has changed significantly and to grab the attention of the other part of the population of the nation, the company started to focus on its vegetarian menu. The company, presently, is trying to grab the attention of the younger generation of the Indian population in the age range of 18-40 ("Home | KFC", 2018). It is commonly seen that the people in this particular age range are the ones who live a fast life and are more open to the kind of products offered by the company KFC. Risk Management Risk can be defined as the potential situation in which a person or an organization stands to lose or gain something of considerable value (McNeil, Frey, Embrechts, 2015). It is to be noted that risk forms an important aspect in the process of business management (Schermerhorn et al., 2014). It is often that the companies which are willing to come out of their comfort zone and take considerable amount of risks are the ones which succeed in the longer run (McNeil, Frey, Embrechts, 2015). The company, KFC is an example of this particular doctrine. The company KFC is one of the largest and most loved brands of the United States of America. The company could have stayed content with its monopoly of the business world. However, the company undertook a considerable amount of risk when it decided to venture into the market of India. It is to be noted that the culture as well as the eating habits of India is completely different from the country of the United Nations of America. There was a considerable element of risk involved in the process. However, the company decided to take the risk and judging by the performance of the company in the recent few years in the Indian nation it would be fair to say that the risk taken by the company KFC paid off. Risks faced by KFC in India The company in the recent times has enjoyed considerable success in the Indian nation. However, there are some risks as well which the company faces in the country of India- The first risk faced by the company is the threat from the various competitors like McDonalds, Subway, Dominos and various others. It is seen that the consumption of the food items sold by the various outlets of the KFC increases the chances of obesity among the consumers. The vegetarian food preferred by the people of India not only limits the number of products offered by the company but also narrows down their targeted customer base. Kitchen hygiene is another common issue, which the company has been facing for a long time. Commodity price fluctuation is another factor which the company needs to deal with. It is commonly seen that in countries like India, the prices of the various commodities keeps on changing and this often becomes a cause of concern for the company as the prices of the products sold by the company are fixed and the company needs to adjust the changes in the prices from its profit margin. The inconsistency of the supplier chain system is another factor which the company needs to take into consideration. It is often seen that in countries like India, due to various factors the supply chain often gets disrupted and therefore in those situations the company have to deal with the scarcity of the resources. Price pressure is another factor which the company needs to take into consideration. Often it is seen that there pressure on the company for the kind of pricing strategy which they adopt and in those situations they are unable to put the prices of the products as per the requirements and the needs of the company. The company KFC can manage the above listed risks by various effective strategies like the ones mentioned bellow- The company can counter the health risk which its products cause by the use of healthy ingredients for the manufacture of its food items. The company can follow the strategies used by the company Subway (Schermerhorn et al., 2014). Implementation of the proper hygienic guidelines can improve the hygiene issues which the company faces in its kitchen. The threat from the competitors can be neutralize by effective management strategies. The collaboration with the brand Yum is such an instance (Klijn et al., 2015). The pricing pressure can be neutralized by following effective pricing strategies taking into consideration the needs as well as the requirements of the customers (Wang, Yiu, Mak, 2013). The problem of supply chain system can be resolved by developing effective supplier system. The company even make use of multiple supplier systems in bid to ensure that even if one system is unable to deliver the desired results the others will (Wang, Yiu, Mak, 2013). The company can overcome the price fluctuation problem by devising effective supplier systems which will ensure that the company gets timely delivery of raw materials and that too at affordable prices (Schermerhorn et al., 2014). Conclusion Therefore, from the above discussion it becomes clear that the companies need to take various factors into consideration for the purpose of doing business in other countries of the world. It is normally seen that various companies embark on the path of globalization without taking into consideration the cultural, political, environmental, legislative and other aspects of the countries in which they are about to open their business centers. This often instead of expanding the business of the company causes several problems for the parent companies. Therefore, it is advisable for the companies to take into consideration the internal as well as the external environments of the countries into consideration before opening their business centers into those countries. The companies also need to take into consideration the various risks faced by them and develop effective risk management strategies which would mitigate the risks faced by them. It is often seen that an effective management of risks can lead to the overall growth as well as the development of the company concerned. References Alviola IV, P. A., Nayga Jr, R. M., Thomsen, M. R., Danforth, D., Smartt, J. (2014). The effect of fast-food restaurants on childhood obesity: a school level analysis.Economics Human Biology,12, 110-119. Cotti, C., Tefft, N. (2013). Fast food prices, obesity, and the minimum wage.Economics Human Biology,11(2), 134-147. Country Comparison - Hofstede Insights. (2018).Hofstede Insights. Retrieved 7 February 2018, from https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/the-usa/ Country Comparison - Hofstede Insights. (2018).Hofstede Insights. Retrieved 7 February 2018, from https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/india/ Home | KFC. (2018).Online.kfc.co.in. Retrieved 7 February 2018, from https://online.kfc.co.in/ HUSSAIN, S. (2014). The impact of sensory branding (five senses) on consumer: A case study on KFC (Kentucky Fried Chicken).International Journal of Research in Business Management,2(5), 2347-4572. Kelly, S., Swinburn, B. (2015). Childhood obesity in New Zealand.The New Zealand medical journal,128(1417), 6-7. Kelsey, J. (2015).Reclaiming the future: New Zealand and the global economy. Bridget Williams Books. Klijn, F., Kreibich, H., De Moel, H., Penning-Rowsell, E. (2015). Adaptive flood risk management planning based on a comprehensive flood risk conceptualisation.Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change,20(6), 845-864. McNeil, A. J., Frey, R., Embrechts, P. (2015).Quantitative risk management: Concepts, techniques and tools. Princeton university press. Samnani, A. (2014). Macro-environmental factors effecting fast food industry.Food Science and Quality Management,31, 37-40. Sania, U., Kalpina, K., Javed, H. (2015). Diversity, employee morale and customer satisfaction: The three musketeers.Journal of Economics, Business and Management,3(1), 11-18. Schermerhorn, J., Davidson, P., Poole, D., Woods, P., Simon, A., McBarron, E. (2014).Management: Foundations and Applications (2nd Asia-Pacific Edition). John Wiley Sons. Schrder, M. J., McEachern, M. G. (2005). Fast foods and ethical consumer value: a focus on McDonald's and KFC.British food journal,107(4), 212-224. Shoyemi, A. O. (2014).Consumers' perception of international quick service restaurants in Nigeria: a case study of Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC)(Doctoral dissertation, Dublin Business School). Shoyemi, A. O. (2014).Consumers' perception of international quick service restaurants in Nigeria: a case study of Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC)(Doctoral dissertation, Dublin Business School). Smith, C., Gray, A. R., Fleming, E. A., Parnell, W. R. (2014). Characteristics of fast-food/takeaway-food and restaurant/caf-food consumers among New Zealand adults.Public health nutrition,17(10), 2368-2377. Taras, V., Steel, P., Kirkman, B. L. (2012). Improving national cultural indices using a longitudinal meta-analysis of Hofstede's dimensions.Journal of World Business,47(3), 329-341. Tiwari, M. (2017). KEYWORDS PESTEL Ps-Product, Price, Promotion, and Place.RECENT TRENDS AND CHALLENGES IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS-A CASE STUDY ON GROWTH STRATEGY OF KFC., (210). Wang, S. Y., Yiu, K. F. C., Mak, K. L. (2013). Optimal inventory policy with fixed and proportional transaction costs under a risk constraint.Mathematical and Computer Modelling,58(9-10), 1595-1614.
Sunday, March 22, 2020
When The Air Hits Your Brain This is the book that every neurosurgeon would like to have written his or her version of, but probably hadn't the time. It is the account of a neurosurgeon's training from medical school to the end of residency, in this case in an American training programme in the 1970s and 80s. Although aimed at the public rather than at neurosurgeons, I could not put it down. Of course, I am biased: I am probably much the same age as the author and shared many of his experiences, or at least the British version of them. I recognise the same pressures on junior staff, the same developments in our specialty, and the same types of character, and I could tell as many tales. He even worked for a spell at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, and, though they are disguised, I certainly recognised several of the doctors described. In his excellent preface, the author sets out the raison d'?tre for the book?to desanctify neurosurgeons and to expose the random nature of their selection and the dehumanising aspect of neurosurgical training which produces a standardised product. That he fails in some of these objectives is not really a criticism. His bosses and colleagues, as all surgeons, were not standardised but shared some common characteristics. Despite the training process, he seems not to have been dehumanised, for he writes about neurosurgical tragedies with sensitivity, even if he suggests that some of his friends were. The random selection does not seem to have been too bad a thing either; I am sure it leads to a more interesting group of trainees. For the author, and for me as well, training was a wonderful time, learning from a bunch of real characters who central casting could not have dreamed up. It was extremely tiring in those far off days of rotas of one in two and worse, but always exciting and totally involving. Only after training the anguish begins, when the buck stops with the surgeon at the top. Vertosick's story is admirably clear. It is enthralling my mother as I write, and she says it all makes sense. Explaining neurological disease to your patients is difficult; to do it effectively throughout a whole book is a real achievement. It is all there?the ghastly experiences of severe brain injury, the macho world of subarachnoid haemorrhage and aneurysms, the frustration of pain management, the tragedies of primary malignant brain tumours, the sometimes unexpected triumphs of benign tumour surgery, and much more besides. Medicine Essays
Thursday, March 5, 2020
The neutralisation of Acids by Antacids Essay Example The neutralisation of Acids by Antacids Paper The neutralisation of Acids by Antacids Paper An Investigation to See What Effects the Neutralisation of Acids by Antacids In this experiment I will be looking at what affects the rate of reaction in a chemical reaction between Hydrochloric acid and commercial antacids. I will be looking at one of the Rates of reaction, surface area, to see if a smaller surface area does speed up a reaction. The reason that I became interested in this experiment is that I have been suffering from terrible indigestion of late and was wondering what would affect the efficiency of the tablets. Indigestion is a common condition caused by excess (or too strong) acid in the stomach, using antacids, usually a salt containing either an earth or alkali metal, always a base, neutralises the acid in the stomach relieving pain. In chemical reactions atoms are rearranged. This rearrangement (and the reaction) is caused by the collision of atoms. In gases and liquids, contact with solids and with each other millions of collisions occur very second. If all these were successful and caused a reaction then every reaction would be over in a millionth of a second. Because reactions arent over in such a quick speed one can presume that not all collisions are successful. To be successful a collision has to occur with enough energy and directly. A good analogy for this is bumper cars at a fair ground. A glancing hit does little but a head on collision hurts! Several things govern the rate of a reaction. I predict that as the surface area of one of the reactants (the tablet) increases so will the rates of reaction. This is because of the reasons discussed above. I set up the apparatus as below and used the equipment safely. 1. I broke the tablet into smaller sizes as per the experiment demanded 2. In this experiment I will be using 0. 25-M hydrochloric acid because antacid tablets are designed to work in our stomach, in which is hydrochloric acid. I was provided with 2M hydrochloric acid and so diluted 2. 5mls of acid in 17. 5mls of water. I found that 0. 25M acid works best through some preliminary work. 3. a) When using the two smaller sizes I added 15mls of the water to the powder so I didnt loose any reactants. b) When using larger surface area I just broke the tablets into their respective sizes. 4. I added the hydrochloric acid solution into the side arm tube and measured (in mls) how much was released by seeing how much water was displaced from the measuring tube. My results were as followed: My results contain one anomalous result. This occurs in the fifth minute of the 1/4 tablet experiment. It was more likely to have occurred by human error than contamination because the control was negative and it occurs half way through the test, not from the start. This graph shows the reaction between 0. 25m hydrochloric acid and Rennie antacid tablets. As you can see the reaction starts at a steady speed and slows down as the reaction progresses. This is because the reactants are used early on and the amount of reactant available toward the end of the reaction is small. At the top end of the graph the speed of reaction between a 1/4 and a 1/6 is small considering the huge increase in surface area. This is because the increase in surface are no longer affects the rate of reaction; the rule no longer applies. This is common with scientific laws, such as Hookes law. Conclusion Antacid tablets are designed to neutralise stomach pH to stop heartburn and indigestion. In my opinion my experiment went quite well. From my experiment one can see that the smaller surface area of a reactant the slower the reaction. This proves my prediction and the rates of reaction correct. The 1/6 tablet reacted far quicker than the whole one. There is little difference between the smallest two sizes of tablet, this is because the law starts not to apply. The pattern is that as the surface area increases so does the rate of reaction, up to a certain point. An anomalous result occurred in the 5th minute of the 1/4 tablet, but it think it was due to human error, as opposed to contamination. I believe that contamination would have affected the whole test, and it would have stood out form the other results, having either a faster or slower reaction rate than the others. The best place to test the tablet would be in the stomach, as this is where the tablets are designed to work, it would be interesting to see if the enzymes in the stomach aid or slow down the reaction, although I think it would make little difference as the enzyme present in the stomach, protease, is designed to break down protein into amino acids, thus would do little to catalyse the neutralisation of stomach acid. To obtain results closer to those which would occur in the stomach, the experiment would have to take place at 32i c. I would expect the reaction to occur at a faster rate, because the particles would be moving faster (this point is explained in further detail earlier in this report). The best way to obtain results similar to those that would occur in the stomach would be a computer simulation, this way I could set the testing environment how I wanted without having to obtain a stomach.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Nursing Shortage - Essay Example tions and there is need to change in order to improve quality of healthcare services and increase customer satisfaction by increasing staff ratios in healthcare facilities, introduction of worker retention incentives, development of placement programs and training of more nurses to meet the demand (Satterly, 2004). The stakeholders involved in this kind of change include the government, nursing professional bodies, community representatives, healthcare training institutionÃ¢â¬â¢s heads, and the nurses. The government allocates more funds for building more training institutions, training of nursing personnel and development of placement programs. The change will also demand that the heads of training institutions expand their capacities by admitting more students. The community leaders are expected to report the level of shortage and engage in developing policy frameworks to address the issue. Nursing professional bodies also have to be up to date in terms of the demand and supply of nurses and will have to engage in identifying areas of high shortage and advice the government on how to deploy (Ross, 2005). Nurses are the subjects in this case and they understand the problem more clearly by implementing change to address the problem of nursing shortage nurses are expected to provide leadershi p and serve as role models encouraging more people to join the profession. LippitÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory used to implement change is the most appropriate for solving the problem of shortage of the nurses. The theory is about finding an external agent to effect change. Here I will propose that one person experienced in the nursing field with transformational leadership mind should serve as the coordinator of the entire process of change. Shortage of nurses can be solved by following the steps of LippitÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory (Feldman, 2013 ). The first stage is diagnosis of the problem. Here the leading nurse who is the transformational leader realizes that the problem of nurse shortage is real and